Myxozoans evoke important economic losses in aquaculture production, but there is almost a total lack of disease control methods as no vaccines or commercial treatments are currently available. Knowledge of the immune responses that lead to myxozoan elimination and subsequent disease resistance is vital for shaping the future development of disease control measures. Different fish immune factors triggered by myxozoan parasites are reviewed in this chapter. Detailed information on the phenotypic and underlying molecular aspects of innate and adaptive responses, at both cellular and humoral levels, is provided for some well-studied fish-myxozoan systems. The importance of the local immune response, mainly at mucosal sites, is also highlighted. Myxozoan tactics to disable or avoid immune responses, such as modulation of immune gene transcription and immune evasion, are also reviewed. The existence of innate and acquired resistance to some myxozoan species suggest promising possibilities for controlling myxozooses through immune-based strategies, such as genetic selection for host resistance, vaccination, immune therapies and administration of immunostimulants.
Fish Immune responses to Myxozoan infections
SITJÀ-BOBADILLA, A., SCHMIDT-POSTHAUS, H., WAHLI, T., HOLLAND, J.W., SECOMBES, C.J.
Myxozoan Evolution, Ecology and Development”. Editores: B. Okamura, A., Gruhl & J. Bartholomew. Springer International Publishing Switzerland.